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There are MANY diffrent types of weapons from alot of different FPS's that it would be difficult to cover all of them. So this page will only discuss the most common types of weapons, and what they are used for.
before talking about the weapons. There is a important topic that needs to be discussed: Hitscan vs. Projectile.
Hitscan is the eaiser one to explain due to it only requiring the user to only aim the weapon directly at the enemy and pull the trigger. hitscan uses where the weapon is aimed when you pull the trigger the game will see if the weapon is on the enemy if it is it will immediatly make the enemy take damage for that bullet imagine a straight line in the gun that goes in a straight line if you aim that line on an enemy if you pull the trigger when the line is on the enemy it is guarenteed that they will take damage.||
Projectile is diffrent from hitscan. For one, hitscan is generaly damage at an instant, while projectile have diffrent speed varities. Projectile is making that bullet an object that has to travel to the enemy. Projectiles can be rather slow so slow that you can see the bullet moving to really fast: hitscan like but they aren't. depending on the game, almost every weapon would be considered projectile due to making the bullet an object that needs to hit the enemy to due the damage. FPS's usuall has diffrent projectile weapons in which has diffrent projectile velocities.
Primary Weapons are usually the weapons that you will use most of the time these class of weapons below explains the most common of weapons from most popular FPS's.
Automatic or a better term, Assult rifles are the most known of all weapons in FPS's due to their versitility. Assult weapons are the "jack of all trades" weapons, they can generally be used from close to distant ranges. Assult rifles are useful in most situations, there are other types of weapons that are specialized for diffrent situations. Assult are used in most offence situations great and snappy but can serve a good defece weapon as well. In most games if they have hitscan Assult rifles will be hitscan.
burst rifles are like auto rifles but instead of being fully automatic, it fires in bursts. Most games that have burst rifles shoot around 2-4 shots per cycle or per trigger pull. the difference between an auto rifle and a burst rifle is that a burst rifle will generally have better chances at longer ranges and debativly be more stable but will be at a disadvantage at close ranges. burst rifles would be considered hitscan if available most of the time but if not they should have a resonable projectile speed.
Light Machine Guns or LMG's for short are automatic weapons that have about the same range and lower stability than assult rifles, but in return, they receive a large amount of ammo per magazine. For example: an average assult rifle in a game will have around 20-35 rounds per magazine. While, an average lmg will have over 50 rounds per magazine or clip, even over 100 in some games. These guns are more used for suppression rather than killing due to them having generally worse accurcy that a standard Assult Rifle. That does not mean it is horrible at getting kills. Rather than rushing in with a LMG, set up at a defence spot or in the back of a huge fight and wait for enemies to appear. LMG are considered more support than offence weapons due to them usually having a slower handleing compared to normal assult rifles.
Shotguns in most game could be considered by many a easy gun to use. Shotguns are a close range type of weapon that does devestating damage up close due to their range limit usually being mid range. The ammo that they use is not like regular bullets shotguns use shells. Depending on what type of shotgun it could be pump action which requires after each shot to rechamber another shot to fire to a semi auto shotgun. Shotguns would be a better choice of weapon to start with due to most of them using buckshot rounds which sprays in a general area which up close means it doesn't ask for alot of aim to use. Shotguns are used more defencively due to the bad range or they can be used for a rush attack in a small area to quickly pick off any enemies.
Sniper rifles and DMR's are quite similer to each other in most games the main difference between them would the the Snipers have a longer effective range while DMR's are mostly semi auto snipers, but with less effective range. There are exceptions to this rule so to save time we will discuss more about snipers. Sniper rifles are precision guns that usually are bolt action there are some sniper rifles that are semi auto but most of the time the games will have them as bolt action. Sniper rifles are best used at long ranges perferablly on high ground to see everything below you. Snipers are harder to use due to a change in playstyle and their limits. Snipers need to stay hidden from the enemy and take out the enemy without them knowing the issue is that many popular FPS's have a kill cam screen what it does is show who killed you and where. Which makes it hard for snipers to stay in one place. Even though sniper rifles are supposed to be used in long engagements there is a popular fad called "quickscoping". Quickscoping is the act of using a sniper in mostly close ranges and quickly aiming down the sights and shooting against the enemy due to the sniper being a very powerfull weapon it would do devestating damage maybe even killing the enemy. This a a way to use the weapon but it is not considered the right way to use the weapon. When using a sniper distance and accuracy is your best friends.
sidearms serve as a secondary weapon if given the option in game that have generally worse stats allround compared to primary weapons such as Assult Rifles, Burst Rifles and so on. They serve the purpose of a back up or an emergency weapon. Sidearms are used for 2 main reasons: 1) when you are currently engaged in a fight and do not have the time to reload your primary weapon. or 2) the enemy is to close to use your primary weapon suffenctly. you may believe that a sidearm may be useless but in general most games that give you a choice on a sidearm it will be added to your loadout for a backup weapon. Sidearms can acucualy pull you out of situations if needed, but most of the time you won't use it in most fights.