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Rebar is the most used type of reinforcement in concrete and by far the most easy to find. However there are many different types of reinforcement that can be used in concrete. Especially if there is a specific need such as controlling surface cracking, or pouring a thin section.

Common rebar sizes:

For thinner applications, a smaller diameter reinforcement media is required. Being that there are many different sizes, shapes, and configurations of both truss wire and reinforcing fiber,too many to list for the scope of this website, here, I will leave you some links to research when trying out some more advanced fabrication and tooling techniques once you have progressed past learning the basic skills.

CCI Fiber reinforcement page
Link to PDF on Fiber reinforcement
Photo of different types of rebar
Photo of different types of rebar
Bar Size Designation Diameter of Bar
#2 1/4 inch
Number two rebar is seldom used and specifications are generally made for higher gradesdue to its low strength. However it can be used in countertop and some Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete projects.
#3 3/8 inch
Number three rebar is the most common in use today and is found in sidewalks, patios, slabs,and generally smaller projects not reqiring the bearing of heavy loads.
#4 1/2 inch
Half inch and above rebar you will find in many projects from driveways to house foundations to highways. Code in my particular area indicates that four bars of half inch rebar must be continuous through a footing, two high and two low, and must have contiguous corner reinforcement.
#5 5/8 inch
Number five rebar is most commonly used in high strength or heavy traffic situations such as highway reinforcement and concrete pads for heavy vehicles and equipment. Heavy when tied close on center.
#6 3/4 inch
The three quarter inch rebar is mainly for structural use in large buildings and highways
#7 7/8 inch
This is some huge rebar. Past this size most people doing small won't be useful.
#8 1 inch
Heavy stuff

And here is a video on reinforcement in concrete to help your understanding.

Page Modified by Arthur 11/16/16